Error Handling

Error Handling

Remix sets a new precedent in web application error handling that you are going to love. Remix automatically catches most errors in your code, on the server or in the browser, and renders the closest ErrorBoundary to where the error occurred. If you're familiar with React's componentDidCatch and getDerivedStateFromError class component hooks, it's just like that but with some extra handling for errors on the server.

Remix will automatically catch errors and render the nearest error boundary for errors thrown while:

  • rendering in the browser
  • rendering on the server
  • in a loader during the initial server-rendered document request
  • in an action during the initial server-rendered document request
  • in a loader during a client-side transition in the browser (Remix serializes the error and sends it over the network to the browser)
  • in an action during a client-side transition in the browser

Root Error Boundary

By default, Remix ships with a default ErrorBoundary built-in, but we hope you'll want to add a little branding to your own global error boundary. You can do so by exporting your own ErrorBoundary from app/root.tsx. This is what your users will see whenever an uncaught error is thrown.

export function ErrorBoundary() {
  const error = useRouteError();
  return (
        <title>Oh no!</title>
        <Meta />
        <Links />
        {/* add the UI you want your users to see */}
        <Scripts />

You'll want to make sure to still render the Links, Meta, and Scripts components because the whole document will mount and unmount when the root error boundary is rendered.

Nested Error Boundaries

Each route in the hierarchy is a potential error boundary. If a nested route exports an error boundary, then any errors below it will be caught and rendered there. This means that the rest of the surrounding UI in the parent routes continue to render normally so the user is able to click another link and not lose any client-side state they might have had.

For example, consider these routes:

ā”œā”€ā”€ routes/
ā”‚   ā”œā”€ā”€ sales.tsx
ā”‚   ā”œā”€ā”€ sales.invoices.tsx
ā”‚   ā””ā”€ā”€ sales.invoices.$invoiceId.tsx
ā””ā”€ā”€ root.tsx

If app/routes/sales.invoices.$invoiceId.tsx exports an ErrorBoundary and an error is thrown in its component, action, or loader, the rest of the app renders normally and only the invoice section of the page renders the error.

error in a nested route where the parent route's navigation renders normally

If a route doesn't have an error boundary, the error "bubbles up" to the closest error boundary, all the way to the root, so you don't have to add error boundaries to every route--only when you want to add that extra touch to your UI.

Error Sanitization

In production mode, any errors that happen on the server are automatically sanitized to prevent leaking any sensitive server information (such as stack traces) to the client. This means that the Error instance you receive from useRouteError will have a generic message and no stack trace:

export async function loader() {
  if (badConditionIsTrue()) {
    throw new Error("Oh no! Something went wrong!");

export function ErrorBoundary() {
  const error = useRouteError();
  // When NODE_ENV=production:
  // error.message = "Unexpected Server Error"
  // error.stack = undefined

If you need to log these errors or report them to a third-party service such as BugSnag or Sentry, then you can do this through a handleError export in your app/entry.server.js. This method receives the un-sanitized versions of the error since it is also running on the server.

If you want to trigger an error boundary and display a specific message or data in the browser, then you can throw a Response from a action/loader with that data instead:

export async function loader() {
  if (badConditionIsTrue()) {
    throw new Response("Oh no! Something went wrong!", {
      status: 500,

export function ErrorBoundary() {
  const error = useRouteError();
  if (isRouteErrorResponse(error)) {
    // error.status = 500
    // = "Oh no! Something went wrong!"
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